Best Management Practices (BMPs)
CROPS []
  • BMP #1: Conservation Cropping Sequence []
    A conservation cropping sequence is an adopted sequence of crops designed to provide adequate organic residue for maintenance or improvement of soil tilth, usually year by year. Crops to be planted on a given parcel are changed year by year in a planned sequence. Crop rotation is a common practice on sloping soils because of its potential for soil saving. This also reduces soil erosion, improves water use efficiency and water quality, enhances wildlife habitat, and breaks the reproduction cycle of plant pests.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Choose crops suited to your soil type.
    • Design crop rotations to meet the residue needs of your crop residue management plans.
    • Include rotations of small grains or pasture/hay to provide erosion control.
    • Use high-residue crops such as corn to replace soybeans or any other low-residue crop to gain better erosion control.
    • Take soil tests to determine the annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.
    • Switch crops to maintain perennials in the rotation, if necessary.
    • Consider herbicide carry-over to avoid crop failures

    Resources:

  • BMP #2: Conservation Cover []
    Conservation cover is the establishment and maintenance of perennial vegetative cover (grass, legumes, trees, shrubs) to protect soil and water resources on land retired from agricultural production.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Take soil tests to determine the annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels
    Grass and Legume Plantings
    • Maintain in perennial vegetation
    • Mow to control weeds
    • During the seedling period, keep mowing height above the height of the grass or legume seedlings
    • Mow after nesting seasons
    • Control noxious weeds such as multi-flora rose, Johnson grass, and thistles, with herbicides
    Tree and Shrub Plantings
    • Mow grass whenever necessary to reduce competition with the trees and shrubs
    • Control noxious weeds with spot treatments at any time
    Resources:


  • BMP #3:Conservation Tillage / Crop Residue Use []
    Conservation tillage is any tillage and planting system in which enough of the soil surface is covered by plant residue after planting to control soil erosion by water.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Adopt a cropping management system that provides crop residue that covers at least 30% of the soil surface.
    • Maintain crop residues by reduced cultivation, as they are a necessary and integral part of conservation tillage systems, especially no-till.
    • Use harvesting and other farm machinery that distributes residue evenly over the field.

    Resources:


  • BMP #4: Contour Farming []
    Contour farming is farming in such a way that all operations, such as plowing, land preparation, planting, cultivating, and harvesting are across the slope, rather than up and down the slope.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Perform all cropping operations across the most critical slope.
      • Plant rows across the slope on hillsides, not up and down the hill.
    • Leave natural waterways undisturbed in grass sod.
    • Consider terracing in extreme cropping situations.
    • Consider the size and operation of farm implements when planning the contour layout.
    • Consider installing a diversion or terrace system to intercept excess surface runoff and deliver the excess runoff to a stable outlet.

  • BMP #5: Nutrient Management []
    Nutrient management involves carefully monitoring all aspects of soil fertility and making necessary adjustments so that crop needs are met while minimizing the loss of nutrients to surface or groundwater. This includes management of all plant nutrients associated with animal manure, commercial fertilizer, legume crops, crop residues and other organic wastes. Nutrient management provides the crop with the correct amount of nutrients at the optimum time and location possible so they are utilized efficiently. This limits the amount of plant nutrients lost to leaching, runoff and volatilization. Nutrient management is one of the more important conservation practices that protect our natural resources. Tremendous benefits to water quality can be achieved and it is relatively easy to implement and can increase profits.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Follow the guidelines in the University of Kentucky’s Extension Publication ID-211, Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP), to develop nutrient management plans unless the Producer is required to follow current NRCS Practice Code 590 (version 2013) based on federal program participation.
      Maintain an adopted sequence of crop rotations to utilize nutrients.
    • Take soil tests to determine the pH (buffer), pH (water), phosphorous, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and calcium to optimize plant production. Analyze animal manure for total nitrogen, phosphate, potash, calcium, and magnesium prior to land application to establish nutrient credits and to formulate application rates.
    • Phosphorous-based nutrient management plans shall require annual soil testing. 
    • Manage animal manure in a manner that prevents degradation of water, soil, air, and that protects public health and safety.
    • Sufficient land must be available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements for nutrients.
    • Minimize edge-of-field delivery of nutrients where no setbacks are required.
    • Temporary storage of poultry manure up to 90 days, shall be stored in a manner that prevents water from coming in contact with litter storage area to prevent the migration of nutrients to surface and ground waters.

    Resources:

  • BMP #6: Filter Strip []
    A filter strip is a strip or area of vegetation that removes sediment, organic matter, and other pollutants from runoff.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Locate filter strip on the lower edge of row crop fields, especially if adjacent to intermittent or perennial streams, sinkholes, wells, or lakes.
      • Avoid installing on slopes greater than 5%.
    • Apply plant nutrients and lime to maintain adequate growth.
    • Mow to eliminate woody plants.
    • Avoid using filter strip as a roadway.
    • Avoid drift when applying herbicides on surrounding cropland.
    • Consider allowing controlled grazing if filter strips are dry and firm.

    Resources:


  • BMP #7: Grasses and Legumes in Rotation []
    This BMP concerns the use of grasses and/or legumes for one or more years as part of a crop rotation.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Use grasses and legumes in rotation with other crops to prevent erosion, especially on sloping soils.
      • Plan longer rotations for fields with long slopes.
      • Remember that the number of years of grasses and/or legumes needed in the crop rotation depends on the other crops grown, soil and landscape conditions, and other best management practices.
    • Take soil tests to determine the annual fertilizer and lime application rates.
    • Use caution in grazing immediately after heavy manure applications.

    Resources:


  • BMP #8: Mulching []
    Mulching is the application of plant residue (which is not produced on the site), wood fiber or by products, asphalt or synthetic sprays, or other suitable material to the soil surface.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Apply plant residue (other than that produced on the site), wood fiber or by products, asphalt or synthetic sprays, or other suitable material to the soil surface around plants to conserve moisture, prevent surface compaction or crusting, reduce runoff and erosion, control weeds, and help establish plant cover.
      • Anchor mulch to prevent removal by wind or surface water runoff.
      • On steep sites, where conventional equipment is impractical, use a hydro-seed or a blower to apply mulch.
    • On severely eroded and graded sites, use mulch with complementary water management practices, such as the protection of the area by diversions.
    • Inspect mulched areas, especially after windstorms or rain events, and replace or repair all damaged areas as soon as possible.
    • Most mulch provides temporary protection from 2-3 months up to one year; therefore, establish permanent vegetation or other erosion control practices as rapidly as possible.


  • BMP #9: Pasture and Hay Land Management []
    This BMP concerns the establishment, re establishment, and maintenance of adapted grasses and/or legumes for long term pasture or hayland uses. It also concerns keeping pasture and hay plants growing and vigorous as long as possible to reduce water loss and protect the soil.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Identify the kinds of soils and the adapted plant species. Estimate the forage yield or the pasture carrying capacity.
    • If applicable, make a realistic estimation of the kinds and numbers of livestock on the farm and their estimated pastureland and hayland needs to avoid overgrazing.
    • To maintain hardy stands, control grazing and mow pastures to control weeds, and cut hay at the proper state and timing for the varieties being grown.
    • Take soil tests to determine the annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.

    Resources:

  • BMP #10: Strip Cropping []
    Strip cropping is a cropping system of growing two different crops in alternate strips on the contour or across the slope.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Arrange crops so that a strip of grass, small grain, or other close growing crop is alternated with a strip of row crop. An entire field may be planted to crop if one is a close grown crop.
    • Leave crop residue on the ground over the winter, or seed a winter cover crop.
    • Carry out necessary protective tillage operations on each strip used for row crops.
    • Establish and maintain grassed or sod waterways in natural depressions and draws subject to erosion.
    • Use buffer strips of perennial vegetation in karst topography or fields with short slopes that break in different directions and do not lend to contour or field stripping.
    • Alter strip width to fit equipment.
    • Select alternate crops that fit well into the overall farm operation and that are adapted to the soil.
    • Relocate fences or other obstructions to improve the strip cropping layout.
    • Use oddly-shaped areas and row ends for wildlife habitat or hay.
    • Take soil tests to determine fertilizer and lime application needs.

    Resources


  • BMP #11: Critical Area Planting and Treatment []
    Critical area planting is the establishment of vegetation on severely eroded, sediment producing areas that often require special planting and management techniques to overcome unfavorable soil site conditions.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Select the most effective erosion control plants that are adapted to the site conditions and that can tolerate the limitations of slope, subsoil, soil acidity, or other adverse site conditions.
      • If pasture or hay grasses and legumes are unsuitable, select erosion control plants with wildlife or aesthetic value.
    • Reduce unfavorable site conditions such as low acidity, low fertility, compaction, dryness, or wetness with corrective measures before seedbed preparation.
      • Spread 4 to 6” of topsoil if extremely unfavorable soil conditions exist.
    • Always use best management seeding techniques, increased seed rates, and mulch.
    • Take soil tests to determine annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.
    • Mow as needed to control undesirable growth, and maintain wildlife habitat, but not to less than 4” in height. If possible, mow after nesting seasons.
    • Reseed and mulch areas that have inadequate cover.
    • If vegetation is an insufficient control measure, then plan complementary structural BMPs, such as riprap or grade stabilization structures.
    • Contact the local conservation district for assistance.

    Resources:

  • BMP #12: Pest Management Including Cultural Control []
    This BMP concerns the wise use and application of insecticides, herbicides, and other agriculture chemicals in the production of farm crops and livestock. It includes safe storage of unused chemicals and proper disposal of empty containers and wash materials. Cultural control is also included.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Read and follow label directions when using pesticides.
    • Evaluate and use a tailored pest management system to reduce crop and environmental damages.
      • Scout crops to determine types of pests—insects, weeds, and diseases—and their stages of development.
      • Determine the economic effect of pesticide use by comparing the potential crop damage versus the cost of spraying.
      • Select pesticides that are selective and effective for specific pests and are the least persistent in soil and water resources.
      • Never spray highly toxic pesticides where excess spray drift or contaminated surface water runoff will be washed directly into sensitive environmental areas such as food crops, urban areas, water supply reservoirs, streams, or groundwater.
      • Avoid double coverage when field spraying.
      • Rotate different pesticide chemical classes to avoid development of resistance by pests.
      • Use insect traps—such as black lights and sex attractants—to identify and monitor insect populations.
    Resources:


  • BMP #13: Cover Crop []
    A cover crop is a close growing crop (grass, legume, or small grain) grown primarily for the purpose of temporarily protecting from erosion and improving the soil.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Plant close growing crops such as cereal rye, oats, and winter wheat in the fall to temporarily protect the ground when crop residues are not adequate following crop production. Ground cover must be adequate to protect the cropland against soil erosion.
      • Choose plant species that are well suited to the soil-site conditions and that fit well in the crop management system.
      • Consider using a grain drill, band seeder, no-till seeder, or broadcast seeder. Aerial seeding is common in parts of western Kentucky, especially to establish a cover crop in standing corn or soybeans just before harvest.
      • Inoculate legume seed just before sowing.
      • Adhere to recommended seeding rates and dates.
      • Consider previous crop and herbicides when selecting species of cover crop.
    • Minimize applications of nutrients in the fall, especially on soils with high infiltration rates.
    • Take soil tests to determine annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.

    Resources:


  • BMP #14: Nutrient Management (same as Livestock BMP#11) []
    Nutrient management involves carefully monitoring all aspects of soil fertility and making necessary adjustments so that crop needs are met while minimizing the loss of nutrients to surface or groundwater. This includes management of all plant nutrients associated with animal manure, commercial fertilizer, legume crops, crop residues and other organic wastes. Nutrient management provides the crop with the correct amount of nutrients at the optimum time and location possible so they are utilized efficiently. This limits the amount of plant nutrients lost to leaching, runoff and volatilization. Nutrient management is one of the more important conservation practices that protect our natural resources. Tremendous benefits to water quality can be achieved and it is relatively easy to implement and can increase profits.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Follow the guidelines in the University of Kentucky’s Extension Publication ID-211, Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP), to develop nutrient management plans unless the Producer is required to follow current NRCS Practice Code 590 (version 2013) based on federal program participation.
    • Maintain an adopted sequence of crop rotations to utilize nutrients.
    • Take soil tests to determine the pH (buffer), pH (water), phosphorous, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and calcium to optimize plant production. Analyze animal manure for total nitrogen, phosphate, potash, calcium, and magnesium prior to land application to establish nutrient credits and to formulate application rates.
    • Phosphorous-based nutrient management plans shall require annual soil testing. 
    • Manage animal manure in a manner that prevents degradation of water, soil, air, and that protects public health and safety.
    • Sufficient land must be available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements for nutrients.
    • Minimize edge-of-field delivery of nutrients where no setbacks are required.
    • Temporary storage of poultry manure up to 90 days, shall be stored in a manner that prevents water from coming in contact with litter storage area to prevent the migration of nutrients to surface and ground waters.

    Resources:


  • BMP #15: Grassed Waterway []
    A grassed waterway is a natural or constructed channel, usually broad and shallow, covered with erosion reducing grasses, used to safely carry surface runoff water from a field, terrace, diversion, or other area to a suitable outlet.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Maintain a drainage way by grading and shaping a smooth, bowl shaped channel and seeding it with sod forming grasses. This grass cover protects the drainage way from gully erosion and acts as a filter to absorb some of the chemicals and nutrients in runoff water.
      • Maintain adequate vegetation and proper width of grass areas.
      • Check for unfavorable subsoil, depth to rock, and other limits to revegetation.
      • Determine if an adequate outlet is available at the end of the waterway before constructing the waterway.
      • Take soil tests to determine annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.
      • Check for high water table soils and seepage areas to determine the need for tile drainage along waterways.
    • Always maintain the original designed width.
    • Lift plows and straighten disks and other equipment when crossing the waterway.
    • Turn off herbicide or other chemical spraying equipment when crossing the waterway.
    • Repair and re-vegetate all breaks and bare spots after discovery.

    Resources:



FARMSTEAD []
  • BMP #1: Solid Waste Procedures []
    Solid waste includes any garbage, refuse, sludge, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi solid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining (excluding coal mining), or agricultural operations, and from community activities.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Prevent surface and groundwater pollution from occurring when water drains through solid waste dumps.
      • Clean up existing dumps on farms when possible.
    • Never dump solid waste in sinkholes, gulleys, or streams.
    • Follow label directions on solid waste with special disposal requirements.
    • Burn solid waste only when allowed by law.
    • Look for new and creative ways to reduce waste quantity and toxicity.
    • Reduce unnecessary packing use and disposal.
    • Reuse, recycle, and/or compost.

    Resources:


  • BMP #2: Septic Systems and On-Site Disposal []
    Septic systems and on site sewage disposal systems use natural processes to treat and dispose of the wastewater from a home. It typically consists of a septic tank and a drainfield. The system accepts both “blackwater” (toilet wastes) and “greywater” (wastes from the kitchen sink, bathtub, shower, and laundry).

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow state and local Health Department codes that specify how wastewater systems must be designed, installed and maintained.
    • Operate and maintain existing septic tanks in a manner that will not pollute surface water or groundwater.
    • Use the Homeowner’s Septic System Guide and Record Keeping Folder (found in Resources below) to evaluate your septic system and to find helpful hints about maintaining the system.
    • Conserve water and properly manage the wastewater treatment system to extend the effectiveness and life of the system.
    • Prevent water that does not need treatment (rainwater) from entering the treatment system.

    Resources:


  • BMP #3: On-Farm Petroleum Storage and Handling []
    An “underground storage tank (UST) system” is any tank, including underground piping connected to the tank, which has at least 10% of its volume underground. This BMP applies only to UST systems that have stored or are storing petroleum products.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Use tanks designed for petroleum product storage.
    • Install tanks according to manufacturer’s recommendations.
    • Locate tanks as far as practicable from water sources (e.g., plastic piping, wells, streams, ponds, septic systems, or open channel sinkholes) to minimize the impact of leaks.
    • When installing a tank:
      • For above ground tanks, use concrete pads and/or soil berms for secondary containment to prevent spills from moving into waterways.
      • Direct traffic around tank pits, tanks, and pumps to protect them from vehicle collision and damage. Driving over a buried UST can collapse the tank or cause leaky connections.
      • Use some type of leak detection such as record reconciliation or secondary containment.
    • If a spill occurs:
      • Clean up immediately.
      • Correct leaks immediately.
      • Empty remaining contents from tank.
    • When closing a tank in place:
    • When removing underground storage tanks:
      • Remove all product and residue from tank.
      • Place any contaminated soil on plastic and cover with plastic. Prevent runoff of contaminated soil from storage area.
      • Request professional assistance from the Kentucky Division of Waste Management if evidence of contamination is observed in the final excavation.
      • If there is a minimal amount of stained or odorous soil, backfill the soil into in the tank pit, place on plastic and cover, or place on plastic in a bermed area and allow to aerate.
      • Properly dispose of tanks (e.g. scrap or use as culvert only after removing all product and residue from tank). Contact the Kentucky Division of Waste Management or the local Solid Waste Coordinator for information.
      • If groundwater is contaminated, contact the Kentucky Division of Waste Management.
      • Contact the local conservation district and/or the Kentucky Division of Waste Management for assistance if there is a significant amount (more than 20 cubic yards) of contaminated soil or if there is any groundwater contamination.

    Resources:


  • BMP #4: Well Protection []
    This BMP applies to wells for human consumption and non-human consumption.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow the Groundwater Protection Plan for Domestic Well Owners, found in Resources below.
    • Conduct basic water testing annually.
    • Properly maintain each well over the life of its use, including repairing damage, removing sediment accumulations, and addressing other concerns dealing with the integrity of the well.

    Human Consumption Wells:
    • Locate well at the required distance away from any potential source of contamination.
    • When installing a drinking water well, use certified well drillers. Contact Division of Water, Groundwater Branch for list. All drillers are required to be certified and to follow state regulations 401 KAR 6:310.
    • Never alter the design of a well.
    • Follow the requirements of 902 KAR 10:085 when locating new wells relative to septic drainage fields and septic tanks.

    Non Human Consumption Wells (wells constructed or improved to provide water for livestock, irrigation or recreation):
    • Locate well at the required distance from any potential source of contamination.
    • Protect well from contamination.
    • Locate new well at least 50 feet from septic tank (70 feet from drainfield) in accordance with 902 KAR 10:085.
    • Locate well upgradient from animal waste area, pesticide, fuel or waste storage.
    • Refer to NRCS standards and specifications for water wells.

    Potential Contamination Source Suggested Minimum Distance from Well (ft.)
    Animal pens or feedlots 50
    Manure areas 75
    Cesspools 150
    Pit privy 75
    Chemical storage areas 75
    Machinery maintenance areas 75
    Waste piles 75
    Lagoons 150
    Sewers (depending on type) 15-50
    Underground storage tanks for chemical fertilizers or petroleum 75
    Above ground storage tanks for chemical fertilizers or petroleum 75
    Septic systems / On-site sewage systems (depending on well's status and septic system component) 20-70

    Resources:


FORESTRY []
  • BMP #1: Construction of Access Roads and Skid Trails []
    An access road is constructed to connect timber harvesting or some other forest activity with the farm or public road system. Skid trails are secondary vehicle travel routes through the forest used to remove harvested timber from a point near where it was harvested to an access road or concentration area. Landings or yards are concentration areas where harvested forest products are temporarily concentrated and stored before being permanently removed from the woods. It is important to construct and maintain these areas in a way that minimizes soil erosion and protects nearby water bodies from sedimentation.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct roads and skid trails to minimize grades. When possible, access roads should not exceed a grade of 15% except for short stretches of 200 feet or less, where grades should not exceed 18%.
    • Install water bars, culverts, or other drainage structures at intervals appropriate to remove water from the road or skid trail to prevent damage and erosion to the surface of the road or trail or the forest floor from channelized flow.
    • Where feasible, install and use bridges or culverts to cross streams (perennial and intermittent) or ephemeral channels. Where bridges or culverts are not used, roads and skid trails should cross streams or ephemeral channels at right angles.
    • Never leave disturbed soil or concentrated logging slash in ephemeral channels.
    • Locate yards and landings outside of streamside management zones (SMZs) and provide adequate drainage.
    • Operate skidders or other logging equipment off hard-surfaced roads under conditions that may cause the development of excessive rutting.
    • Promptly reshape and revegetate roads, skid trails, and log landings after silvicultural activities are completed.
    • Implement measures to restrict vehicle access on retired roads, skid trails, and landings until the site is stabilized.











    Resources:



  • BMP #2: Revegetation []
    “Revegetation” means establishing a vegetative cover to stabilize the soil and reduce damage to downstream areas from sediment and runoff resulting from silvicultural activity.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Sow grass on sediment producing, erodible, or severely eroded areas such as logging roads, skid trails, or log landings as soon as possible. Erodible areas include those with a slope equal to or greater than 10 percent.


  • BMP #3: Streamside Management Zones []
    A streamside management zone (SMZ) is a strip of woodland located adjacent to a stream where only limited disturbance is desirable. SMZs are also commonly used where lakes and ponds exist near logging areas. SMZs maintain natural stream temperature in perennial streams through shading, maintain the integrity of the streambank, and reduce the amount of sediment entering the water by minimizing soil disturbance and filtering overland flow. Intermittent streams are generally dry in the summer months and do not require shading. Both “perennial SMZs” and “intermittent SMZs” require protection of the stream banks and channel and of the adjacent strip of forestland.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Maintain areas adjacent to perennial streams, lakes, and ponds, forest buffers for a minimum surface distance of 25 to 55 feet on ground with less than 15% slope and a minimum surface distance of 55 to 90 feet on ground with slope of 15% or greater. Retain at least 50% of the original tree over story (canopy cover) to shade the water and to maintain water temperature.
    • In areas adjacent to intermittent streams, avoid operating equipment in a zone of at least 25 feet on each side of an intermittent stream except for designed crossings.
    • Never use stream beds as roads or for the skidding of logs except where the geology or other physical conditions of the site leave no other alternatives.
    • Provide additional protection for Coldwater Aquatic Habitats (CAHs) (high quality trout streams), as designated by the Kentucky Division of Water; only remove individual trees or small groups of trees within the 60-foot-wide strip on either side of CAHs. Leave at least 75% of the original canopy cover intact; and not disturb understory vegetation immediately adjacent to CAH streams.
    • Never drain fluids from equipment near streams and keep logging equipment at least 25 feet from stream banks where direct runoff of pollutants from equipment into the stream is likely to occur.

    Slope Minimum Distance from Perennial Water Bodies (ft.) Minimum Distance from Intermittent Streams (ft.)
    0 25 25
    5 35 30
    10 45 35
    15 55 40
    20 65 45
    25 75 50
    30 85 55
    35 95 55
    40 105 65
    50 125 65
    60 145 65
    70 165 65


  • BMP #4: Sinkholes []
    This BMP concerns forested areas in karst topography which contain “sinkhole” depressions. Sinkholes are open or closed circular depressions in limestone areas where surface waters flow to join an underground drainage system.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Leave a buffer zone between any disturbed areas and sinkholes (30 feet for 5% slopes and 10 more feet for each 10% increase in slope).
    • Divert runoff from haul/access roads, skid trails, and log landings so as not to drain directly into sinkholes, sinking streams, or caves. (Note that if runoff does enter a sinkhole, a UIC permit may be required.)
    • Never push soil, logging debris, or other waste material into the bottom of a sinkhole or into any noticeable sinkhole opening.
    • Never drain fluids from equipment onto the ground. Instead collect them in a container, transport off site, and recycle or dispose of properly.
    • Employ a buffer zone when using fertilizer and pesticide in the vicinity of a sinking stream or sinkhole with an open swallet.
    • Avoid disturbing soil in sinkholes, and reestablish vegetation on disturbed areas as quickly as possible.

    Resources:


  • BMP #5: Logging Debris []
    Logging debris is noncommercial portions of trees and brush or other logging operation waste products associated with silvicultural operations, which may clog, or in some other way, degrade water courses and water quality. This BMP is designed to protect water bodies from pollution by organic and inorganic debris, to protect stream channels, and reduce erosion of streambanks and adjacent areas.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Take precautions to prevent tree debris, such as tops from harvested trees, from remaining in or being washed into perennial streams.
    • Never leave equipment on stream banks.
    • Never change oil or equipment fluids in a manner by which pollutants may drain onto the ground or wash into a stream.
    • Properly dispose of cans, bottles, lunch bags, oil filters or air filters, etc.
    • Properly dispose of used oil, hydraulic fluids, and other fluids.

    Resources:


  • BMP #6: Proper Planting of Tree Seedlings by Machine []
    This BMP concerns planting of tree seedling stock with mechanical tree planting machines in a manner to minimize potential degradation of water quality.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Operate mechanical tree planters across the hill (on the contour).

    Resources:


  • BMP #7: Fertilization []
    This BMP concerns minimizing water quality degradation while applying specific chemicals to the soil to favor increased growth of vegetation. This practice induces desirable vegetation to achieve maximum growth practical for site conditions, while managing the fertilizer in such a way as to protect the quality of nearby water bodies.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    • Use only the amount of fertilizer necessary.
    • Stay away from bodies of water or those areas immediately adjacent to them. The use of fertilizers in SMZs is generally undesirable, and fertilizer should be applied only in strict compliance with label directions.
    • Avoid using fertilizer within 30 feet of sinkholes.


  • BMP #8: Application of Pesticides []
    Pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides and nematocides. Applications of these chemicals destroy, prevent, or control woody or herbaceous vegetation and other forest pests on forested lands or areas being reforested. The BMP is to apply pesticides in such a manner that water quality degradation is minimized.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow all label directions.
    • Never clean equipment or dump excess waste materials near bodies of water.
    • Remove empty containers from woods and dispose of them properly.
    • Avoid using pesticides in SMZs or within 30 feet of sinkholes.
    • Follow label directions for applications near bodies of water.

    Resources:


  • BMP #9: Site Preparation for Reforestation []
    This BMP concerns treatment of lands prior to the planting of tree seedlings or direct seeding of tree seed. This is done to aid in the successful establishment and growth of tree seedlings once planted. This BMP is to apply such treatment in a manner by which potential water quality degradation is minimized.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Use only low impact methods of site preparation to minimize potential for nonpoint source pollution. Low impact methods are defined as those practices which cause a minimum of site disturbance.


  • BMP #10: Silviculture in Wetland Areas []
    Wetlands are areas characterized by soils saturated with moisture during all or a significant proportion of the year and which support a dominance of plants adapted to wet conditions. Such areas are transition zones between predominately dry upland sites and permanent water in streams and lakes. Official determinations of whether a forested area is a wetland are the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers unless there is adjacent cropland, in which case the determination may be made by the Natural Resources Conservation Service of USDA. Forested wetlands, because of their uniqueness, require additional considerations above those listed in other BMPs dealing with silvicultural activities.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Minimize construction of permanent roads.
    • Locate landings on higher ground.
    • Restrict vehicle traffic to a minimum.
    • Avoid crossing streams sloughs.
    • Leave 50 70% of the overstory to shade perennial streams and sloughs.

    Resources:



LIVESTOCK []
  • BMP #1: Planned Grazing System []
    A planned grazing system is a practice in which two or more pastures are alternately rested and grazed in a planned sequence for a period of years in order to maintain minimum recommended grazing coverage as typically measured by height. Rest periods may be scheduled throughout the year or during the growing season of key plants.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Divide larger pasture fields into smaller pasture units with temporary or permanent fences.
    • Rotate animals from one pasture unit to another on a pre arranged schedule based on forage availability and livestock nutrition needs.
    • Allow rest periods so each pasture unit will have adequate time to recover during the growing season to promote plant growth and prevent erosion.
    • Consider using dry lots, in conjunction with rotational grazing, to hold animals in order to preserve pastures and reduce the creation of mud during drought, unseasonable wet periods or winter months.
    • Take soil tests to determine annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.

    Resources:


  • BMP #2: Proper Grazing Use []
    Proper grazing use is defined as grazing at an intensity that will maintain enough cover to protect the soil and maintain or improve the quantity and quality of desirable vegetation and crop residues. This may include matching stocking rates to maintain cover when Livestock BMP #1 is not implemented. Apply practices that will keep pastures growing and vigorous over as long a period as possible. This includes grazing and pasture management practices that improve the quantity and quality of the forages and to maintain adequate vegetative cover. The amount of animal waste and nutrients reaching streams will be reduced by the filtering effects of the vegetation slowing runoff and by the increased uptake of nutrients.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Identify the kinds of soils and the adapted plant species present.
    • Estimate the forage yield or the pasture carrying capacity.
    • Make a realistic estimation of the kinds and numbers of livestock on the farm and their estimated pastureland and hayland needs.
    • Check the availability and location of an adequate and economical livestock water supply for successful grazing management.
    • Take soil tests to determine annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.
    • When vegetation cannot be maintained, consider implementing conservation buffers, such as filter strips, grass waterways, and riparian buffers to filter contaminants.

    Resources:


  • BMP #3: Riparian Area Protection []
    A protected riparian area is an area of trees, woody shrubs, grasses, and other vegetation located adjacent to or up gradient from water courses, wetlands, and impounded water bodies. This area should be protected from livestock, or livestock should be managed in a manner to protect the area. The area reduces sediment, organic material, nutrients, and pesticides in surface runoff and shallow groundwater flow. Benefits of this practice include enhanced wildlife habitat, reduced stream water temperature, streambank protection, and erosion control.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Apply this BMP in areas where a portion of the runoff occurs as shallow groundwater flow and where water quality is impaired or there is a high potential for water quality impairment.
    • Select and manage vegetation to adequately control or significantly abate potential soil erosion and provide adequate filtering and uptake benefits from the affected areas.
      • Adapt plantings of hardwood trees, shrubs, and grass/legume species to the soils and other site factors.
    • Plant a riparian buffer area adjacent to permanent or intermittent streams, lakes or ponds, and wetlands.
      • Establish a groundcover to provide erosion protection and additional filtering and uptake benefits.
        • Groundcover establishment within new riparian zones should include a perennial grass and legume species and at least one quick cover (annual) species.
        • Only non-competitive species of ground cover should be established within zones to be forested.
    • Exclude livestock, except at designated crossing areas and watering sites, if vegetation is not capable of withstanding grazing pressure. Consider using temporary fencing to exclude livestock from zones that may be grazed temporarily.
    • Monitor riparian buffer zones for possible damages following significant storm events.
    • Avoid damaging buffer zones with herbicides from surrounding cropland.

    Resources:


  • BMP #4: Limiting Access to Streams by Fencing with Alternative Water Systems or Limited Access Points []
    This BMP includes fencing, alternative water systems, limited access points, and stream crossings. Fencing involves enclosing or dividing an area of land with a suitable structure that acts as a barrier to livestock or people. An alternative water system is a water supply other than a present system (generally a stream), which may include a spring development, pipeline and tank, or temporary water system. Limited access points restrict or limit the access of livestock to a given area. This most often occurs along streams or ponds by fencing and creating an access ramp to the water supply. Stream crossings involve installing a designated crossing for livestock using a design that utilizes rock and geotextile fabric.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Carefully manage livestock around bodies of water or streams.
    • Maintain adequate vegetative cover on areas affected by livestock along the stream edge.
    • Select and manage vegetation that adequately controls or significantly abates potential soil erosion and provide adequate filtering and uptake benefits from the affected areas.
    • Exclude livestock, except at designated crossing areas and watering sites, if vegetation is not capable of withstanding grazing pressure.
    • Consider using temporary fencing to exclude livestock from zones that may be grazed temporarily.
      • Select the most practical type of fence to achieve protection.
      • Barbed wire or electric fences may be the most economical.
    • Consider the possible presence of Threatened and Endangered (T&E) species and the mitigation techniques that may be required.











    Resources


  • BMP #5: Manure Management System []
    A manure management system is a planned system for managing liquid and solid manure, in which all necessary components are installed in a manner that does not degrade soil or water resources.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Manage manure in a manner that prevents or minimizes degradation of air, soil, and water resources and protects public health and safety.
    • Consider implementing a single component, such as diversion, or several components. Possible components include:
      • Debris basins
      • Dikes
      • Diversions
      • Fencing
      • Grassed waterways or outlets
      • Irrigation systems
      • Irrigation water conveyance
      • Nutrient management
      • Constructed wetlands
      • Pond sealings or linings
      • Subsurface drains
      • Surface drains
      • Manure storage facility
      • Manure treatment lagoons
    • Plan the overall manure management system before installing any individual components.
    • Ensure that the system meets all applicable permit requirements.
    • Prepare an operation plan for operating and maintaining the system.

    Resources:


  • BMP #6: Manure Storage Pond []
    A manure storage pond is a reservoir, pit, or pond made by excavation or earth fill for the temporary storage of liquid and/or solid livestock manure, waste water, and/or other polluted runoff prior to land application. Construction of a storage pond for animal manure allows it to be used more effectively for fertilizer. Livestock manures are temporarily held in the manure storage pond until spreading.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct a storage pond for the temporary storage of liquid and/or solid animal waste until it can be spread or used more effectively.
      • Site the pond carefully.
        • Locate out of the floodplain area.
        • Check soils, rock depth, topography, and underlying geology for site suitability.
        • Place pond close to the manure source to reduce excessive surface runoff water in the holding pond.
        • Select a site with the greatest practical distance from residences, roads, streams, and lakes.
        • Consider wind direction and offensive odor problems.
        • Make sufficient land available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements.
      • Estimate pond size from the projected liquid and solid manures, surface runoff, and frequency of pumping the pond.
        • Depth and shape are not critical so long as the design capacity is achieved.
        • Consider future livestock expansion as well as present number in determining pond size.
      • Consider concrete ramps down into holding pond for pumping and hauling equipment to prevent energy dissipation that may erode clay liners.
      • Plan inlet so that manure is emptied near the middle of the pond.
        • Use corrosion-resistant materials and protect them from freezing.
        • Prevent energy dissipation that may erode clay liner.
      • Manage the pond properly.
        • Vegetate the embankment and surrounding areas to control erosion.
        • Schedule pumping to avoid overflow.
      • Adhere closely to the design and construction plan developed by government or private engineers.
      • Contact the county conservation district for local information about required permits.

    Resources:


  • BMP #7: Manure Storage Structure (Holding Tank) []
    A holding tank is an essentially water tight structure of concrete, concrete block, steel, fiberglass, or similar materials to temporarily store livestock liquid and slurry manure. Holding tanks are an effective means of storing animal manure on site, reducing its access to streams. The manure can be hauled and applied in a slurry form when soil conditions permit and it is needed most for crop production.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct a holding tank to store animal waste on site until it can be applied in a slurry form when soil conditions permit and when it is needed most for production.
      • Site the tank carefully.
        • Check soils, rock depth, topography, and underlying geology for site suitability.
        • Locate where surface water is excluded, unless it is needed for manure dilution.
        • Site should be easily accessible for emptying and spreading equipment.
        • Place tank as close to the manure source as possible.
        • Make sufficient land available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements.
        • Adhere to local and state health regulations concerning design, location, and ventilation, especially if tank is located under a building.
      • Ensure that push-offs are structurally sound with safety bars and other devices to prevent humans, animals, or equipment from falling into the tank.
      • Estimate tank size according to the kind and number of livestock, the amount of flushing water for dilution, and the planned retention time.
        • Allow a minimum six-inch freeboard at the top of the tank and six inches at the bottom for accumulated wastes.
        • Consider future livestock expansion, as well as present numbers, in determining tank size.
        • More than one tank may be needed in large operations.
      • Use water-tight tank construction to prevent seepage from the tank and groundwater seepage into the tank.
      • Design a reinforced tank to withstand internal and external pressures.
      • Protect metals with concrete or paint to reduce corrosion.
      • In larger tanks, plan several unloading openings to allow adequate agitation. These openings should have tight covers.
      • Construct according to engineering design by government or private engineers.
    • Remove and dispose of manure according to a nutrient management plan.
    • Contact the county conservation district for local information about required permits.

    Resources:


  • BMP #8: Manure Treatment Lagoon []
    A manure treatment lagoon is an impoundment made by excavation or earthfill to biologically treat livestock manure or other agricultural waste, reduce pollution, and protect the environment. Lagoons biologically treat agricultural wastes to reduce nutrient content when wastes are not used for fertilizer value. Excess effluent may be removed from the lagoons by irrigation or hauling if needed.
    • Anaerobic lagoons require less surface area; however, they may produce odor. These lagoons work best at depths of 8 to 15 feet. They are sized based on production and loading rates of volatile solids. In Kentucky, rainfall exceeds evaporation by about 12 inches per year. Excess effluent may be removed by irrigation or hauling.
    • Aerobic lagoons are shallow and have a recommended depth of 3 to 5 feet, where bacteria work in the presence of oxygen. Naturally, aerobic lagoons are designed on the basis of daily biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loading per acre of lagoon surface. These are sometimes used when the landowner does not want the manure as a fertilizer.
    • A combination of anaerobic and aerobic lagoons may be used if desired and site conditions permit. The anaerobic lagoon is sized and located to discharge into the aerobic lagoon. The aerobic lagoon should equal one half of the surface area of the anaerobic lagoon. If further treatment is desired, a second aerobic lagoon may be added to receive discharge from the first aerobic lagoon. Both aerobic lagoons should be of equal surface area.


    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct lagoons (anaerobic, aerobic, or anaerobic/aerobic combination) to biologically treat agricultural waste to reduce nutrients in it when wastes are not used for fertilizer value.
      • Site the lagoon carefully.
        • Check soils, rock depth, topography, and underlying geology for site suitability.
        • Locate out of the floodplain area unless other protective measures are taken.
        • Locate downhill from manure, concentrated livestock areas, feedlots, or other waste generated by agricultural production.
        • Locate where prevailing winds will minimize odors.
        • Select a site with the greatest practical distance from water supplies, streams, and residences.
      • Estimate lagoon size by the projected maximum weight of animals using the lagoon as well as other agricultural waste that might be directed into the facility.
        • The minimum depth for anaerobic lagoons is 8 feet and is 2 feet for aerobic lagoons.
      • Locate the lagoon on soils that can seal through biological action to prevent leakage.
        • Use mechanical treatment or liners in limited cases where self-sealing is not possible.
      • The edges of all lagoons below the planned waterline should be constructed as steep as possible to reduce weed growth in shallow water areas.
      • Vegetate the embankment and surrounding areas to control erosion.
      • Build according to engineering design by government or private engineers.
    • Contact the county conservation district for local information about required permits.
    • Fence and post warning signs if necessary to protect and to assure use for intended purpose.
    • Remove excess effluent by irrigation or hauling if needed.


  • BMP #9: Sediment or Solids Separation Basin []
    A separation basin is a structure that temporarily restrains runoff and permits liquids to drain gradually to a holding pond, lagoon, or infiltration area. Solids remain in the basin for drying and later removal for field application.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct a sediment or solids separation basin, generally a shallow basin designed for low velocities and the accumulation of settled materials between the manure source and manure storage or treatment facilities.
      • Locate basin on soils of slow to moderate permeability or on soils that can seal through sedimentation and biological action.
        • Avoid gravelly soils and shallow soils over fractured or cavernous rock.
        • If self-sealing is not probable, seal the basin with mechanical treatment or with an impermeable membrane.
      • Ensure adequate capacity to store settled solids for a reasonable period based on climate, equipment, and method of disposal.
      • Do not construct to an elevation below the seasonal high water table unless considered as a special design.
    • Consider using an infiltration area to further treat effluent.

    Resources:


  • BMP #10: Manure Storage Structure (Stack Pad) []
    A stack pad is a stacking facility constructed of durable materials to temporarily store solid livestock manure or other agricultural waste until it can be removed and properly disposed of on the land.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct stack pads to provide storage of solid animal wastes until it can be properly utilized for fertilizer.
      • Site the stack pad carefully.
        • Check soils, rock depth, topography, and underlying geology for site suitability.
        • Locate close to manure source to reduce scraping time.
        • Locate where prevailing winds will minimize odors.
        • Select a site with the greatest practical distance from water supplies, streams, and residences.
        • Adhere to local and state regulations that relate to site location and design.
      • Consider the type and number of animals, amount of bedding used, and the proposed retention time when determining the storage structure’s size.
      • Pushoffs must be reinforced for safety.
      • Slope floors slightly away from equipment entrance.
      • Construct nearly level access ramps, if possible, for easy equipment entrance.
      • For storage of semi-solid manure, design and use removable reinforced concrete or heavy timer entrance gates to minimize liquid outflow.
    • Fence as necessary to prevent livestock and humans from using the facility for other purposes.
    • Use vegetating screens or other methods as needed to shield structure from public view and/or improve visual conditions.
    • Follow a design construction plan prepared by government or private engineers.
    • Contact the county conservation district for local information about required permits.
    • Consider using other management components such as waste storage ponds and filter strips with stack pads to reduce nutrient rich runoff from reaching surface water.











    Resources:


  • BMP #11: Nutrient Management []
    Nutrient management involves carefully monitoring all aspects of soil fertility and making necessary adjustments so that crop needs are met while minimizing the loss of nutrients to surface or groundwater. This includes management of all plant nutrients associated with animal manure, commercial fertilizer, legume crops, crop residues and other organic wastes. Nutrient management provides the crop with the correct amount of nutrients at the optimum time and location possible so they are utilized efficiently. This limits the amount of plant nutrients lost to leaching, runoff and volatilization. Nutrient management is one of the more important conservation practices that protect our natural resources. Tremendous benefits to water quality can be achieved and it is relatively easy to implement and can increase profits.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow the guidelines in the University of Kentucky’s Extension Publication ID-211, Kentucky Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines (KyNMP), to develop nutrient management plans unless the Producer is required to follow current NRCS Practice Code 590 (version 2013) based on federal program participation.
    • Maintain an adopted sequence of crop rotations to utilize nutrients.
    • Take soil tests to determine the pH (buffer), pH (water), phosphorous, potassium, zinc, magnesium, and calcium to optimize plant production. Analyze animal manure for total nitrogen, phosphate, potash, calcium, and magnesium prior to land application to establish nutrient credits and to formulate application rates. Phosphorous-based nutrient management plans shall require annual soil testing.
    • Manage animal manure in a manner that prevents degradation of water, soil, air, and that protects public health and safety.
    • Sufficient land must be available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements for nutrients.
    • Minimize edge-of-field delivery of nutrients where no setbacks are required.
    • Temporary storage of poultry manure up to 90 days, shall be stored in a manner that prevents water from coming in contact with litter storage area to prevent the migration of nutrients to surface and ground waters.











    Resources:


  • BMP #12: Equine/Poultry Waste Feed []
    Certain animal manure can be utilized as feed for other livestock. Feeding broiler litter to cattle is an example of effective use of a by product from one livestock industry by another. This type of activity usually requires some type of processing prior to feeding.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Store and process animal manure to be used as feed in such a way as to prevent contamination of streams, sink holes, springs, wells, and ground water.
      • Consider using a concrete pad or stack pad to aid in material handling and pollution prevention.
      • Use an open-roofed structure or polyethylene cover to aid in runoff prevention.
      • Maintain area surrounding store processed manure by cleaning up loose or spilled materials.
    • Never store or process accumulated manure in floodplains or in sensitive environmental areas.
    • Take measures to prevent run off water from stockpiled manure from entering the above mentioned areas.

  • BMP #13: Filter Strip []
    A filter strip is a strip of close growing dense vegetation for filtering sediment, nutrients, and pathogens. Ideally, they are established down slope of animal production areas to capture and treat runoff before it reaches environmentally sensitive areas.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Plant or maintain a dense grass sod in strips to filter soil and water to help protect water quality by reducing soil movement.
      • Nearly level uniform slopes are most effective. Slopes over 8% need wider filter strips.
      • Consider establishing a filter strip with a width in multiples of the width of mowing, fertilization, and other farm equipment.
      • When there is little or no existing vegetation, follow pasture and hayland planting or forage and biomass best management practices.
      • Take soil tests to determine the annual fertilizer and lime application rates for obtaining desired yield levels.
      • Mow to eliminate woody plants or for hay production.
      • Remove sediment deposits as needed, and grade to a uniform slope and re-seed.
      • Provide rest periods for grass recovery if there are large concentrated water flows.
    • Leave existing natural vegetation along streams or lakes if it is effective in removing sediment or animal manures.
    • Remember that filter strips are not only good management practices, but they can also provide additional forage for hay production when properly managed.

    Resources:


  • BMP #14: Feeding and Heavy Use Area Management []
    This BMP concerns managing heavily used livestock areas in a manner that protects areas prone to water quality or soil erosion problems by establishing vegetative cover, by surfacing with suitable materials, or by installing needed structures.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Protect or stabilize heavily used livestock areas, like areas around feeding and watering facilities, by establishing vegetative cover, by surfacing with suitable materials, or by installing needed structures.
      • Install sprays of asphalt, oil, plastic, manufactured mulches, and similar materials in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations.
      • Establish vegetation by seeding and/or sprigging or sodding to stabilize heavy use areas.
        • Select plant species that will tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including sun, shade, drought, and excessive traffic by livestock.
      • Feed livestock in a manner that recognizes areas prone to water quality or soil erosion problems and avoids such problems.











    Resources:


  • BMP #15: Dead Animal Disposal []
    This BMP concerns methods of disposing of dead livestock that are legally and environmentally acceptable, including incineration, boiling, burying, rendering, placing in a landfill, composting, or a combination of the previously listed methods.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow requirements of state law KRS 257:160.
      • Remove carcasses by hiring a rendering company, burying, composting, burning, or boiling for rendering with 48 hours of discovery.
    • When burying carcasses, avoid areas subject to flooding or closer than 100 feet to a stream, well, spring, lake, or sinkhole.
    • Be aware of the need to develop specific handling procedures that avoid aesthetic and odor problems.
    • Diligently and conscientiously manage dead animals to prevent ground water or surface water pollution and odor nuisances.

    Resources:


  • BMP #16: Milking Center Wastewater Treatment []
    Milking center wastewater includes waste from the milking parlor and milkhouse. It comprises milk solids, fat, casein, detergents, manure, and other solid and liquid particles.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Develop and manage a milking center wastewater treatment system that is environmentally acceptable and prevents wastewater from contaminating ground or surface water.
      • Direct wastewater to a manure storage facility and then spread on cropland or pasture.
      • Direct disposal to a specially designed grass covered area.
      • Direct disposal to a municipal sewage system.
      • Direct disposal to a soil absorption/lateral field.


  • BMP #17: Poultry Facility Siting and Land Application of On-Farm Generated Waste By-Products []
    This BMP applies to the construction of poultry facilities and the use of nutrient management planning in conjunction with land applications to control or eliminate the contribution of excess nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) to our water resources.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Have at least 15 acres for 1-2 poultry houses, and add 5 acres for each additional poultry house.
    • Follow appropriate setbacks for nutrient management facilities, poultry houses, and land application of poultry waste or by-products.
    • Prepare a nutrient management plan. At a minimum this plan must meet the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan requirements in Livestock BMP #11-Nutrient Management and specify on-farm application of litter.
    • Store litter in a temporarily or permanently covered facility that is at least 150 feet away from all streams or tributaries.
    • Take necessary measures to reasonably prevent an increase in moisture content by diverting water.
    • Dispose of mortalities only through methods approved by the Kentucky State Veterinarian (see Regulatory Requirements-Disposal of Animal Carcasses KRS 257:160).
    • Consider future expansion as well as present number when determining siting of facilities.
    • Make sufficient available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements.
    • Use vegetative screens or other methods as needed to shield structure from public view and/or improve visual conditions.


    Facility/Property Boundary Minimum Setback Distance for Nutrient Management Facilities and Poultry Houses (ft.) Minimum Setback Distance for Land Application of Poultry Waste or By-Products (ft.)
    Dwellings 500 300
    Schools 1500 ---
    Churches 1500 ---
    City Limits 1500 ---
    Public Parks 1500 ---
    Property Lines 75 ---
    Tunnel Ventilation Fan Outlets 750 ---
    State and Federal Roadways 150 ---
    County Roadways 100 ---
    Water Bodies 150 75
    Sinkholes 150 75
    Wells 300 200

  • BMP #18: Stormwater Diversion []
    Stormwater diversion is the practice of diverting clean water to keep it clean and reduce the volume of dirty water that must be managed. Appropriate practices include but are not limited to:
    • Guttered buildings that reduce the volume of water flowing onto open animal confinement areas where animals are held or fed.
    • Vegetative filter strips or rock-lined channels that divert headwater away from production facilities, feeding areas, lagoons, and manure storage ponds
    • Detention/retention structures that hold large amounts of stormwater generated from impervious areas.
    • Hardened structures, such as hardened ditches and check dams, that prevent soil erosion associated with high storm flows.


    The purpose of these BMPs is to reduce issues associated with the “first flush,” a high concentration of pollutants that washes away once a rainfall begins and pollutes surface water resources. In many cases diverting clean water also reduces the amount of water that requires containment and management, creates a drier environment for the animals, and reduces odors.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct stormwater diversion structures to divert as much clean water as possible to reduce the amount of dirty water that could be created and that must be managed.
    • Carefully consider appropriate BMPs to create a sustainable agricultural operation. The right BMPs for an agricultural operation depend on several factors, many of which are site-specific. No single BMP will prevent all types of pollution from occurring, and in many cases, multiple BMPs need to be implemented to control and manage pollution to prevent a discharge of pollutants to the waters of the Commonwealth.
    • Adhere closely to the design and construction plan developed by government or private engineers.
    • Contact the county conservation district for local information about required permits.

    Resources:



PESTICIDE AND FERTILIZERS []
  • BMP #1: Storage of Dry Bulk Fertilizer []
    This BMP applies to the storage of over 25 tons of dry fertilizer in a non mobile structure or container for longer than one year.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Provide a dry, ventilated storage area.
    • Store fertilizers and pesticides spearately from one another and away from foodstuffs and feed.
    • Check storage areas frequently for leaks and spills.
    • Clean up spills immediately.
    • Locate new storage facilities a minimum of 100 feet away from wells, springs, cisterns, open channel sinkholes and perennial streams.
    • Protect new permanent containment and operational areas, located in floodplains, from inundation by floods.


  • BMP #2: Storage of Liquid Bulk Fertilizer []
    This BMP applies to the storage of over 5,000 gallons of any liquid fertilizer in a non mobile structure or container for longer than one year.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Confine tanks within an earthen berm and bottom, constructed of clayey soil that contains 110% of the largest tank capacity plus a 6” rainfall.
      • Protect earthen walls used for secondary containment of fertilizer against erosion by sodding and seeding.
      • Construct side slopes that do not exceed a 3 to 1 ratio of horizontal to vertical.
      • The top width of earthen walls should not be less than 2.5 feet.
    • Include a sump and/or collection point in secondary containment structures for the temporary collection of spillage, leakage, rinsate, and other residues.
    • Collect and discharge uncontaminated precipitation from containment areas.
    • Collect and apply contaminated precipitation to labeled target areas or dispose of it by other approved methods.


  • BMP #3: Storage of Liquid or Dry Fertilizer (small quantities) []
    “Fertilizer” refers to any fertilizer in liquid or dry forms. This BMP applies to dry fertilizer in accumulated quantities of less than 25 tons of net dry weight, stored for any period of time. It also applies to liquid fertilizer in accumulated quantities of less than 5000 U.S. gallons liquid measure, stored for any period of time.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Store fertilizer in properly labeled containers that are chemically compatible with the fertilizer.
    • Storage containers and appurtenances shall be constructed, installed, and maintained to prevent the discharge of liquid fertilizer.
    • Clean up spills immediately.
    • Store fertilizers and pesticides separately from one another and away from foodstuffs and feed.
    • Read and follow label directions for storage.
    • Use proper storage practices even if fertilizers are on-site for only a short time (e.g., in springtime before plantings). Even seasonal storage can result in spills or leaks that can pollute groundwater.
    • Develop a plan to deal with fertilizer spills, including spill site management and storage site clean-up.
    • Locate new storage facilities at least 100 feet away from wells, springs, cisterns, open channel sinkholes, and perennial streams.
    • Protect new permanent containment and operational areas, located in floodplains, from inundation by floods.


  • BMP #4: Storage of Dry Bulk Pesticides []
    This BMP applies to the storage of more than 300 pounds of any dry pesticide in a non mobile structure or container or in an individual container in undivided quantities for longer than one year.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Store fertilizers and pesticides separately.
    • Store in a dry, secure, ventilated area.
    • Clean up spills immediately.
    • Locate new storage facilities at least 100 feet away from wells, springs, cisterns, open channel sinkholes, and perennial streams.
    • Protect new permanent containment and operational areas, located in floodplains, from inundation by floods.


  • BMP #5: Storage of Liquid Bulk Pesticides []
    OThis BMP applies to the storage of more than 300 gallons of any liquid pesticide in a non mobile structure or container or in an individual container for more than one year.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Store in a dry, secure, ventilated area.
    • Construct secondary containment facilities of concrete or other impervious materials.
      • Construct floors and walls of secondary containment structures of concrete, concrete block, steel, or other impervious materials compatible with product being stored.
      • Never use clay, natural soil clay mixtures, clay/bentonite mixtures, and elephant rings to contain any liquid bulk pesticide.
    • Never use underground storage containers or plumbing with a secondary containment facility.
    • Include a sump and/or collection point in secondary containment structures for the temporary collection of spillage, leakage, rinsate, and other residues.
    • Protect containers, pipes, hoses, and valves against reasonably foreseeable risks of damage by vandalism, trucks, and other moving vehicles.
    • Never install relief outlets or release valves in secondary containment structures.
    • Clean and rinse secondary containment structures within 72 hours after any agrichemical spill or leakage.
    • Apply rinsate of equipment and secondary containment structures at a label-approved site or disposed of by other approved methods.


  • BMP #6: Storage of Liquid and Dry Pesticides (small quantities) []
    This BMP applies to the storage, over any period of time, of dry pesticides in quantities less than 300 pounds. It also applies to storage, over any period of time, of liquid pesticides in quantities less than 300 U.S. gallons.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Keep pesticides in original containers.
    • Store each type of pesticide separate from all other types (e.g., store herbicides separate from insecticides).
    • Construct, install, and maintain pesticide containers and appurtenances to prevent the discharge of liquid pesticides.
    • Never put pesticide concentrate or diluted pesticide into food or drink containers.
    • Never allow pesticides to contaminate feed or foodstuffs.
    • Never store or transport pesticides near feed or foodstuffs.
    • Read and follow label directions for storage.
    • Clean up spills immediately.
    • Develop a plan to deal with pesticide spills, including spill site management and storage site clean-up.
    • Use proper storage practices even if fertilizers are on-site for only a short time (e.g., in springtime before plantings). Even seasonal storage can result in spills or leaks that can pollute groundwater.
    • Adequately mark new pesticide storage areas with warning signs and lock to prevent unauthorized entry.
    • Locate new storage facilities at least 100 feet away from wells, springs, cisterns, open channel sinkholes, and perennial streams.
    • Protect new permanent containment and operational areas, located in floodplains, from inundation by floods.


  • BMP #7: Transport of Pesticides and Fertilizers []
    This BMP concerns transportation of all pesticides and fertilizers on public highways.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow all U.S. DOT requirements for travel on public roads, pursuant to 40 CFR, 49 CFR, and all other applicable regulations.
    • Transport all packages and containers in a safe and stable manner.
    • Maintain transport vehicles and any safety equipment, i.e., fire extinguisher.


  • BMP #8: Mixing, Loading & Handling []
    This BMP concerns the mixing, loading, and handling of all pesticides and fertilizers and their containers.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Follow all pesticide and fertilizer label requirements. The label directions are federal law and enforceable by the Kentucky Department of Agriculture.
    • Follow 302 KAR 31, administered by the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, concerning licensure of pesticide applicators and commercial operator training.
      • Receive certified applicator training and certification and be at least 16 years of age.
      • Have a Certified Applicator Card, which certifies that the holder has participated in a progressive, inclusive educational program for the application of pesticides.
    • Use backflow prevention techniques, such as keeping the end of the fill hose above the water level in the spray tank to prevent back siphoning or using an anti-backflow device, for all measuring, mixing, and loading.
    • Rinse spray equipment in the field and apply the rinsate created on the field just treated or at a label-approved site.
    • Measure, mix, and load at the field site.
    • Use a nurse tank as the water source.
    • Avoid mixing or loading within label-required distances of wells, open channel sinkholes, perennial streams, and lakes.
    • Rinse all containers clean and add the rinsate to the spray tank.


  • BMP #9: Excess Pesticide Disposal []
    This BMP applies to the disposal of any pesticide meeting the definition of “pesticide” at KRS 217B.040.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Use only on a label approved site.
    • Store in a secure, dry location until used, recycled, or disposed of properly.
    • Mix only the quantities to be used immediately.
    • Periodically inspect pesticide containers for deterioration.
    • Dispose of unusable excess agricultural pesticides according to a state Pesticide Collection Program.
    • Consider existing inventory when planning for use of spray material.


  • BMP #10: Pesticide and Fertilizer Container Disposal []
    This BMP concerns disposal of containers for all pesticides and fertilizers.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Dispose of nonreturnable containers according to label directions.
    • Store containers that have been rinsed until clean in a ventilated area until properly disposed or recycled.
    • Rinse all containers until clean and then add the rinsate to the spray tank.
    • Participate in a rinse and return program.
    • Use biodegradable or returnable containers whenever possible.
    • Puncture recyclable containers to prevent reuse.



STREAMS AND OTHER WATERS []
  • BMP #1: Stream Crossing Protection []
    Stream Crossing A stream crossing is a bridge or low water crossing built for farm or vehicular traffic. These guidelines are provided to minimize impacts to surface streams. This BMP covers activities described by Corps of Engineers (COE) Nationwide Permit #14.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Construct low water crossings in a manner that does not obstruct the normal flow of the stream.
    • Minimize soil erosion and removal of streamside vegetation.
    • Check the crossings regularly and especially after flooding. Repair structural damage immediately, and revegetate the damaged spots as soon as possible.

    Resources:


  • BMP #2: Sand and Gravel Removal []
    The removal of sand and gravel deposits in streams by mechanical means for commercial or other purposes can affect aquatic ecosystems. These guidelines are provided to minimize the disturbances and adverse effects on water quality.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:
    • Minimize disturbance to stream by excavation equipment.
      • Leave a 10 foot buffer between excavations and stream flow.
    • Access gravel from shore as much as possible.
    • Remember that gravel removal in high quality streams designated as Outstanding Resource Waters by the KY DOW requires additional stream protection measures.
    • Minimize gravel removal as a flood prevention technique.
    • Minimize disturbance to streamside vegetation during removal process.


  • BMP #3: Streambank and Shoreline Protection []
    Streambank protection is structural and/or vegetative practices designed to control or prevent stream banks from scouring, caving, or sloughing. This BMP covers activities described by Corps of Engineers NWP #13.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan you should:

    Projects in a watershed less than 640 acres (1 square mile) or bank stabilization activities of less than 500 feet in length:
    • Never place material in excess of the minimum needed for erosion protection.
    • Build no lower than 1 cubic yard below the high water mark.
    • Never place material in wetlands or any other special aquatic sites.
    • Never block water flow in or out of a wetland.
    • Do not allow erosion by normal or high water flows.
    • Complete only one project on the streambank section in question
    Projects in a watershed greater than 640 acres (1 square mile) or bank stabilization activities of more than 500 feet in length:

  • BMP #4: Proper Stream Drainage Maintenance []
    Stream drainage maintenance is that group of practices used to assure that streams are able to carry the optimum water flow to prevent flooding. Examples include removal of log jams and sediment blockage. These stream drainage activities can affect water quality. In order to minimize negative effects, proper stream drainage maintenance techniques need to be employed. This activity may be covered by Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit #27.

    To use this BMP in your water quality plan, you should:
    Projects in a watershed less than 640 acres (1 square mile):
    • Identify specific problem areas (log jams, fallen trees, sediment accumulation, etc.) and focus activities in these areas to avoid unnecessary disturbance to adjacent stream habitat.
    • Remove only the vegetation required to clear stream blockage.
    • Minimize the straightening of stream meanders.
    • Contact the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, or Kentucky Division of Water if the stream in question is a ditch or a channelized stream or if there are wetlands nearby.
    Projects in a watershed greater than 640 acres (1 square mile):